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SMALL MARES MAKE BEST BROODMARES. r i ■ qw ■ im * to wInmIi, r height and Muallnc fai l ■ 1 .1 • ■ •li.|oinn| ol scMlill i M.l l ii I. I in mammal* li u, been oft n ami widely dl ■ u. • ••!. bin 1" in i • mi !ii i ion ii haa miri iiri ii commented upon in a waj ;h to render u of interest to the stock t,. .- i!i i . mi coarse, biologists cannot close their ii— to the fact that in certain sinnics amongst iii lihrhei -t.u! - oi mammals, particularly in those ii lived under must primitive conditions, and »ii Ii mii- never exposed to such Influences of en rirunatenl as have determined sometimes marvellous rtunjres ii the coloration and conformation of races, height ami smallnesa are pronounced sexual chat ■ its. There Is, for example, the aea-elepliant, living in the Arctic aooes. The male is three times as big as the female. However, more important. i i Uaps, than this la the fact alluded to by many i ■ explorers, that one ntaj travel hundreds ol tn lea in : 1 1 « • breeding season without seeing one but Ml female. Sncli ami similar observations, as opiHued bj others to which 1 shall refer further be low. have not niily led in the acceptance of the fad that In Ight is a sexual character of the male smalluesj of the female, but alao to tin ad- "i! that tlii— surprising degree of prolificacy exists in those species only, the male ami female « i which greatly differ In -izc. and other characters, v. i, though common in both, are more pronounced sei than In the otlw i I have ■ i • ii wonder il the problem of origin and inherl au t sex haa never been discussed in what, tn mj mind, is the onlj possible way. Wbo .i denj the facl of the female sex being the in iinal and the male sex the advanced form of ii 3 S|..i. .• !■« «-- in. i permit me to dwell on this difficult tin Mi. at any length; tun I can foresee thai before -; long the Mendelian interpretation of sex will lie: r male recessive to male, the former explained bj Hi absence and the latter by i in- presence ol Hi.- additional factor for male. This cannot oe conjecture, in view of the fact ihai la everj -i.. . n - "i mammals the male has teats, which lends to prove that the rudimentarj form must have Imih the Female, and would have remained sn were ii not for i i ■ - i ilirii-iii y • the added fi ctor for male, ill. presence of which Is alternative to it- absence Winn in 1900 i collaborated in the publication of S i.iin-1 Shackletons book on his first Polar ex m-ditloii 1 was highly interested in the description which Hie biologist of the expeditiou, Mr. James Murray, gave ol boom species of mono-sexual Boti mi.:, which propagates oartbenogenetically ; thai is to say, by means of uniraprcguated ova. The ma litn-d egs mil. subsequently, the embryo remains In the bodj . and the young are bom alive. This no doubtedly i- he original form of life, which biolo- I -:- call monism, lit developmeul of the all, or universe from ■ Bingli principle. And the second i. e„ the male, determined by causes which are Iteyond our powers of conception, presents Itsell in the — « -1 ■ .-1 : a i imi of the fertilizing from tin producing clement. Tims we have dualism, the iwo-foldiiess in the unity of being, m t h - doc trim il, a i lliere are two opisisite* ami Indetienricntly exist ii princiides whlcli ■-• to fonn everything. I !,!• -c|i:i i-:i i ion of the i productive ele tents naturall imposed different duties and different null- ol living "ii the two sexes, which, under null Influences, developed what we tall sexual characters. Certain dull - of I he male, and par tleularj -.i in the higher order of mammals, rc-i|iiin-il a greater degree of physical - reugUi than il.i female uceded, and therefore i he rormer grad naliy acquired characters unknown, liecanae un necessary, in the female. And that height is .mint il gives me mi doubt. Both • . naturally, i usl lie m full possession nf the sr-xunl characters in Ibeir purest form to be able !•• fulfil properly the duties «1iich Nature ordained for them. The • 1 1 • -1 1 1 i 1 1 . 1 1 - stallion, however great a racehorse be m»j haii- been, as a rule is ■ dead Failure at the stud, and similarly he ton masculim looking brood ! am i .hi ng to s!,.,.v why breeders Ktsiiilil imi i-r an n i-m comlema Hi- brooduian il -in- i- only a |i-m.. They should rather discard the Ii- broodmare: which, however rationally the* in.-n he bred, cannot i-o—ihh do Justice to their lireediug. Kor un part, I a u perfectly clear on tin- point that the increasing |»ereeiitage of barren Mat* is due h the modern tendency oF breeding for slap. Mm- on I needs to mnipare tlie interesting i i tics ..I" Admiral Rons in connection with the si/- of modem thoroughbreds ami lien- v.,u Oettin-gens statistics with refereueo t.. the rising scale oi barrenness during the past fiftj rears to per • re a distinct coherency between these two features hi modern breeding. Home time ago 1 read a very Interesting ethnographical treatise, published in i ran..- in which the writer endeavored to demon slrate the reason- for the enormous amount of in-iii-i ni i ai igst Ha colored races, which, in the mail;, he, of course, attributed to the early ata-luritj •! woman. But incidentally he raised the Interesting i|iiestion: "May we n-n take ii that the ■ imi-il differences In si/- and other sexual characters betwee an and woaaaa has something to do with this state of affairs?" Ii would then be Interesting to quote from Hen vou Oettinxens iN,nk. "Hot ■ Breeding, in Theory and Practice." and to hear what he lias to s.iy on iliis important subject : " Ill- Feminine character always tinds distinct ex-prissi..ii wiiii good broodmares. Vampire, the dart of Flying Pox, with her conspicuous stallion neck ami im feminine c arseness. belongs iii the exceptions, and besidea the 1888 Derby winner sin- has not produced anything useful. Mares with pronounced booked teeth are marly always bad dams, and very ..I in barren. Statistics further teach ns that small, wirj mares are preferable to targe so-called* show mares. If the dams oi classic winners are divided according to their conformation into three uilitarj rlassei Horse Guards, Lam ts, and liussais the most approved broodmares will be Found in the last lot. ti. ml broodmares of the Horse Guards type are few. To mention a few hnglish individuals ni ihis class, there is si. Edltha, dam ■! s;. Gatlen; Morganeltc, dam of ;.-i 1 1 •■»■ More and Aid Patrick. Also H1|Hiia, herself an Oaks winner, was a brood-mi i the Horse Guard type, but sin- could not produce anything better than Gnnnersbury even to such a L-iml sire as Hermit. On the other haul. Perdita 1!- and Medora amongal others, as may he found in the following list were of a distinct lin---.il type: Hands Horn. lliuh Jn - n Mali 1785 IL! .Mania. • ISOti 15J VvU i . des ..in lsiT 15.0 I.:. una 1 s_ I 13. I - Beeswing is.;: 15:2 Irniiliv ls:;7 ]"i.::;- Pocahontas ls..T 14.:; • hii/i...- is:;s 14.:: Miami lsi i 15.1 l.idi l.wh u mu n.-,.i ir, Bliuk B uny 1834 I5.24 ImiM-rieiise 1834 i:..; Pulcherrima |s; :; 15.0% Pearl ina IsTTi 1S.1 I. nlil.i li 1881 L"..2 Morgauette lssi ji;. Vltarha issi ].-, Sappho, Famous German mare isi, 15.1M Vision Ism; 15.1» i I.. i l-l. ■■■in- 1889 16.0 Midi.ia lsiio 15.2 1- ta 1893 i: .- 1 think ;his list bich. In the main, distinctly proves iii- higher Iweedlng value ot small brood-wares, can Im- much Further extended by instances From modern brintllng. But, as for famous Im id-mares of tlut present lime, there is cirtalnly none of the small sise ami the siiii-ni- class I Poca I las, Ghuxncc and Miami. these thr« ■ instances, im-i. ih. in anj others, emphasize the advisability of givl - preference to lite smaller lyne of broodmare. .i al Bolts run;. -ml- that, ill 1700. the ;i In i--; ht was I."! baiids :; Inches, and that ii has sin. i-risen everj twenty-live years by one Inch, whlcli meant that M ought to he now 1" bands •: inches. II sever, ii can lie easlh ascertalmil that the i ..I the thoroughbred in Knglaml has in I ased verj mil li more i]iiickly than Atlnil il Sous sup p.i-.-.l "The deslri t" Increase lielght seems ti im-lo Im dangerous." otiserves Hen Von Oettlngeu, "aud ii will, nrohaiih . m soon nil. be possible, at il:.- i-|..-n- - ill soundness of legs." He • mi i-lmli- his ii ii ii-i-m mi this modem tendency t breed for - ■/. ■ li tin i mark: "The most Favorable siz.- For liiiinilimi: - i- 13 bands 1 Inch m lo 13 bands :: inches, or ah.. in two nchi* I ■ -- than the most fav«H-alde height For a staltbm." I think ii will he ill; admitted that 10 hands i- the Ideal six im i - i.ilii- ii. and il i; tlnlj cat not I.,- a mat ter ..i mere colm lenee tlial ih- sizi was recorded for Kir Peter. Ilrville. Stm-kwell, Itlalr il. il. Bos ■ a ..i.iii. Springfield, tl itnant, I- un. Gallinule, lyi hire, etc, si. Snmin mi mured 10 hands one half Inch, aud can therefore lie included in this list, tin the other hand, the 17 hands blgh Prince ■ le, the 10 bands ". inches high St. Serf, ami to uuote an i i-i ■ in. mi French breeding the nearly 17 bands high Maim non, rept sented a ih .•iiii tils Infi ird ti : hat i th Ir reapecth .- - . Blair At hoi, St, Simon ami Le Saglttaire. w. . therefore, maj presume that also as far as the breeding uualitj nl stallions - - i. the mod . b Icmlenej oi brcetling i it is il ill tdvantage, rather than otherwise. A 17 bands high stallion a|.|.i-.-ii -. it we compare him with the xlera avei age, tn l «- a -hi of "freak" and, without mention mi: Iwlividual cases, I think ii will noa be gener f.ii-. .i. . . nii-.i that i in ■ iin-e of such i.uiis are not • ■■ im! as in -land successfully the i quire n. i nls i.i ni..i|. i - in. !"■ .ni i long -li.iv s;,.,;-t. ih. golden mean, also in bloods » 1; breeding, is i ;,. ftafest H a-i ■ ■ -m • ess But ii sltoukl be i are 1 1, considered thai there must lie considerable qiargin between the Ideal sise ol ih-- stall iou ami thai of the broodmare. For reasons which, i hope, I I ive t ■ 1 1 1 i-|ilaim-d alsiye In r un earlier treatises "ii Mendelism. I have defended the rlea thai the phenuwen I IndUvidual prepwtencj aaaj help la throw over n:- tain Mendelian laws, it i- ancrted hy the ultra Mendelian crowd that the pure dominant for bay cannot poseibly produce a chestnut, and. as a rule, they rais.-. if exceptions of this kind come to their notice, doubts aa to the genuineness of the paternity or maternity, as the ease may be. today 1 am able to allude to an individual case which does not admit ol tie slightest scepticism towards ita truthfulness. Roquelaure. up to 1812. baa aired about sevent roal . amougst which there la not a single chestnut. However, last year such phenomenon arrived. II was bred by Mr. V. A. Murphy, at »-berstown Stud in Ireland out of the hay mare Chinese Empress, bj Santoi out el Madame Royale. The bitter was a chestnut mare by the baj Cncas by Stock well mil of the bay Madeline by Plum Pudding. That. In thl nattcular cast-, the Stock well element Is predominant, if not omnipotent, may be gathered From the fad that her best sen. FruRtrum, by St. Simon, i- a chestnut. As Wild-fowler i- a chestnut, the Blly which Madame Royale produced lo him in 1903. Past Panny, was. of course, to be a chestnut as well. But the Interesting fact la this ease i- that this mar", which was sold to the Argentine In 1907, Coaled In 1910. 1811, ami 1812. three chestnut foal- to Diamond JnbUee, and every one of them Pantasma, hagnaraao. and Pripon have proved racehorses of the very tii-i order, and have won altogether in the la-i seaaon something between tea and twelve thousand pounds in -lake-. A similar ease is ihat of the chestnut stallion, I.oushy. sired by Desmond, also supposed to be a pure dominant for hay. Lousbys dam. Kill.i-coona. is a chestnut mare by Phoclon whose dam. Phoi iui.i. waa a daughter of I ncasl out of Kil-li inv. a daughter of .Master Kiidaie and Strath-ardle. a chestnut daughter of Blair Athol. Tims. three nf the male lines in the maternal breeding of I.oushy trace back to Stockwell, and to all an pearanee thi- close Inbreeding Id to mch an intensification of the Stockwell element that si. Simon* was completely suppressed. -•Boulanger" in I. ni- -iii sp rt ing Life.